Travel = the amount a fork moves telescopically when pressure is applied .. eg landing an 8ft drop.
Damping = the system used to produce a progressive spring rate.. e.g soft at first to absorb small bumps.. harder later to absorb big stuff and to stop "bottoming out".
Bottoming out = unnerving clunk of suspension when it runs out of travel.. e.g 12ft drop
Top out = the sound made by my old pair of "Manitou" forks. Caused by raising the front wheel... mainly on elastomer forks. This results in a "clunk" when the suspension extends